Hollosi Information eXchange /HIX/
Copyright (C) HIX
Új cikk beküldése (a cikk tartalma az író felelőssége)
Megrendelés Lemondás
1 GIS- es amitoguru-allas a CEU-ban (mind)  39 sor     (cikkei)
2 KERDES : Atom-hirek (Ukrajna) (mind)  19 sor     (cikkei)
3 Immunrendszer & peszticidek (mind)  66 sor     (cikkei)
4 On "Our Stolen Future" Part 1. (mind)  52 sor     (cikkei)

+ - GIS- es amitoguru-allas a CEU-ban (mind) VÁLASZ  Feladó: (cikkei)

A fizetes tisztesseges; a munkakorulmenyek kitunoek; es
a tarsasag ISTENI ;-))....! (diakok es tanarak uszkve 40 orszagbol....)
Az angolt persze kenni-vagni alapfeltetel.

Sok sikert,


Central European University (CEU)
Nador u. 9
1051 Budapest
tel:  36-1-327-3021
fax:  36-1-327-3031


The Department of Environmental Sciences and Policy is accepting
applications for the position of Research Assistant.

Ideal candidates should have a background in computer programming to
develop software for the environmental software library and modify
existing programs, be able to help with day-to-day running of the
network and provide support for the users, have some knowledge of GIS
(geographical information systems), and have a working knowledge of
both Hungarian and English.

Please send a C.V. or resume, a list of three references whom we may
contact, and a cover letter to the address above by July 10, 1996. 
Applications will also be accepted via e-mail to:  >. 
The approximate start date would be September 1, 1996.

Kerlek, kozvetlenul a tanszeken erdeklodjetek, es ne nalam!

+ - KERDES : Atom-hirek (Ukrajna) (mind) VÁLASZ  Feladó: (cikkei)

>Pervomaisk (South-Ukrainian Nuclear power  Plant),  June 1,  -
>All the  cities  in  the 30 km zone around South-Ukrainian NPP
>are cleaned up by disactivating substances. It's possible that
>South-Ukranian Nuclear Power Plant have released a big  amount
>of  radioactivity  to  the  atmosphere  on  May  27, - special
>correspondent reported  from  Pervomaisk,  a  small  city   is
>located in 32km from the NPP.  It's a tradition in Ukraine  to
>cleanse cities   by   disactivating  chemicals  after  serious
>accidents with radioactivity  release  from  NPP,  but  nobody
>knows is it helping anybody. It wasn't any press-release  from

 Ezt a "disactivating substances" kifejezest nem ertem. Olyasmit, hogy olcso
es hatekony mososzer, azt el tudok kepzelni es akkor nem a sugarzo
izotopokat, hanem az epuleteket "sugarmentesitik". De az miert jo? A fiuk
ossze tudjak gyujteni a hazak tetejerol lemosott port? Ha nem, ha csak
vizsugarral lemossak a szemetet a foldre, az elso szel visszaviszi. 
Mi ez a hir, meg tudna valaki magyarazni nekem?

Laszlo Barna
+ - Immunrendszer & peszticidek (mind) VÁLASZ  Feladó: (cikkei)

<<Immune System Suppression is Linked to Widely Used Pesticides.>> 
by Bette Hileman, From:  CHEMICAL & ENGINEERING NEWS 1996, 
74(12), 23.

Considerable evidence exists that exposure to widely used pesticides 
may suppress the immune system, making people significantly more 
vulnerable to infectious diseases and certain cancers.  But the problem
is being ignored according to a report by the World Resources Institute
(WRI) titled "Pesticides and the Immune System: The Public Health 
   The problem of immune suppression from pesticides may be 
particularly significant in developing countries, where infectious 
diseases cause nearly half of all  deaths.  A large fraction of the 
population here is involved in agriculture, with a concomitant 
widespread and increasing exposure to pesticides.  Farmers and 
workers lack the knowledge and equipment to heed safety precautions 
even when using products that are banned or severely restricted in 
industrialized countries, says WRI Vice President Robert Repetto, a 
former associate professor at the Harvard University School of Public 
Health and coauthor of the report.
   The evidence for immune suppression comes from three types of 
studies: laboratory tests, wildlife, and human.  And some pesticides from
nearly every major chemical class have been found positive for 
immunotoxicity in laboratory tests, says researcher S. S. Baliga, 
coauthor of the report.  Although no single study in humans proves that
pesticides are causing increased disease, the weight of evidence from 
these studies gives cause for concern.
   Hundreds of studies in human cell cultures and 1ab animals using 
accepted scientific methods show that many pesticides alter the 
immune system, the report says.  Such tests include those for 
macrophage, neutrophil, and natural killer cell activity; leukocyte count; 
lymphocyte count; and tests in which the animals are challenged with 
bacteria, fungi, or viruses a after being given a dose of pesticide.  If the 
animals exposed to pesticides are less able than the unexposed 
animals to defend themselves against microorganisms, their immune 
systems are assumed to be compromised.
   Wildlife studies also offer evidence that pesticides are immunotoxic.
For example, seal  pups captured off the relatively unpolluted northwest 
coast of Scotland were fed uncontaminated fish for one year.  Then 
the seals were put in two tanks.  Half the pups were fed Baltic Sea 
herring, which is polluted with pesticides and PCBs, while the other half
were fed relatively uncontaminated herring from Iceland.  The immune 
system responses of the pups fed Baltic herring were overall one-third
as strong as those in the control group.
   Epidemiological studies in central Moldova in the former Soviet Union
have implicated pesticides in immune suppression.  In one study, 
teenagers in villages where pesticide application was greatest had two 
to five times as many respiratory tract infections as teenagers from 
areas of lower pesticide use.
   In the US and several other countries, the overall cancer rate in 
farmers is lower than that of the general population.  But studies show
that farmers who use pesticides experience elevated risk for the same 
cancers that immune-deficient patients develop.
   The report says the "WHO should take the lead in designing and 
organizing an extensive program of research to address the risk of 
pesticide damage to the human immune system." Thorough testing for 
immunotoxicity be required on all pesticides also recommended.
   Currently, in the registration of pesticides, the EPA requires only a 
single crude test of immunotoxicity - a measure of the weight of the 
tissues involved in immune system function. That test is sufficient to
detect an effect on the immune system, says John McCarthy, American 
Crop Protection Association (ACPA) vice president of global scientific
and regulatory affairs.  But it needs to be supplemented with three new
follow-up tests for immunotoxicity that EPA proposed two years ago, 
McCarthy says.  The tests were approved by the Scientific Advisory 
Panel to EPA's pesticide program and endorsed by ACPA.
+ - On "Our Stolen Future" Part 1. (mind) VÁLASZ  Feladó: (cikkei)

Edited excerpts from the book review by William R. Moomaw (Professor 
of international environmental policy at the  Fletcher School of Law &
Diplomacy, Tufts University)
Appeared in: Chemical & Engineering News, 1996, 74(14), 34-35.
 "OUR STOLEN FUTURE: Are We Threatening our Fertility, 
Intelligence, and Survival?  A Scientific Detective Story=94 by T. Colborn, 
D. Dumanoski, & J. P. Myers, Dutton, New York 1996, pp 306 ($24.95)
Part 1.
In a prepublication announcement, the publishers called "Our Stolen 
Future" the second "Silent Spring" being a wake-up call to a newset of 
environmental and health problems associated with the ubiquitous use 
of chemicals.  A quick review of Rachel Carson's 1962 classic confirms
that there are, indeed parallels between these books.  But there are 
also some important differences.
   Like Carson, the authors of "Our Stolen Future" are from outside the 
scientific mainstream.  Colborn, who constructed the book's basic 
hypothesis, is a zoologist and senior scientist and the World Wildlife 
Found.  She was assisted by Petersen Myers, a biologist who directs 
the W. Alton Jones Foundation, concerned with protecting the global 
environment and which provided financial support for the project.  Most
of the actual writing was done by Dumanoski, an award-winning 
environmental journalist.
   The book primarily was written to the public and policy-makers, and 
not for a technical audience.  The individual pieces of research they 
have assembled come from specific peer-reviewed scientific literature 
and are carefully documented in extensive endnotes.  However, the 
links they propose between these research findings and the their 
hypothesis have received little attention from the scientific community.
   That hypothesis is that low concentrations of chemicals now 
widespread in the environment can cause endocrine disruption, 
especially during fetal development.
   The authors, after skillfully describing the nature and role of chemical
messengers, make their case by explaining how hormones transmit 
information that is during embryogenesis to create the brain, 
reproductive system, and other organs.  In adulthood, these hormones 
determine reproduction and other critical functions.
   Carcinogens are often species-specific metabolites of ingested 
chemicals; by contrast, many species share common molecular 
hormones.  Hence, the authors argue that animal models are more 
likely to be relevant to humans in the study of hormonal effects.  They 
then recount a series of observations of birds, reptiles, and other 
wildlife; laboratory and in vitro research studies; and human 
epidemiology and medical cases that they link to synthetic chemicals 
acting as "endocrine mimics".
   Much of the book's. power comes from its emphasis on alterations in
sexual differentiation and reproductive outcomes.  The authors 
describe reports of ambivalent genders of birds and wildlife; loss or 
diminution of primary and secondary sex characteristics; infertility and 
reduction of sperm counts in human males; rise in estrogen-stimulated 
cancers of breast and prostate; and lowered intelligence in children of
women exposed to certain chemicals.   
   It is pretty scary stuff.